An **Operator** is a symbol that tells compiler to perform certain mathematical or logical operations. Operators are usually same in all programming language like c/c++ , java , python etc.

Built-in **C / C++ operators** are :

- airthmetic operators
- logical operators
- bitwise operator
- relational operators
- assignment operators
- misclleneous operators

**Arithmetic Operators**

Consider the following table

Lets assume A=6, B=4 now

Operator | Description | Example |
---|---|---|

+ | Adds two operands | A + B will give 10 |

– | Subtracts second operand from the first | A – B will give 2 |

* | Multiplies both operands | A * B will give 24 |

/ | Divides numerator by de-numerator | A/B will give 1 |

% | Modulus Operator and remainder of after an integer division | A%B will give 0 |

++ | Increment operator, increases integer value by one | A++ will give 6 BUT ++A will give 7 |

— | Decrement operator, decreases integer value by one | B– 4 but –B will give 3 |

when we divide a number , output depends upon our **datatype** , Here ,

- if our datatype is
**integer**, then output is rounded off to the nearest low value integer i,e

here in our case the output should have been**1.5**bt it is rounded of to nearest n low valued integer i.e**1**hence the output is recieved !! - if our datatype is
**float**, now we know that float takes decimal values too

therfore our output will b**1.5**

Now lets talk about increment operator / decrement operator :

here when we write A++ then internally firstly A is printed then it is incremented ( just go with the flow …. i.e from left to right )

i.e why our output is 6 here . In the memory it go incremented later n before getting incremented it got displayed . Also in ++A, here **incrementation is done first ** according to the symbol , n then its displayed hence output is 7

**Logical operators**

Assume A=1 and B=0

in terms of boolean 1 means true and 0 means false

Operator | Description | Example |
---|---|---|

&& | Called Logical AND operator. If both the operands are true, only then condition becomes true. | (A && B) is false. |

|| | Called Logical OR Operator. If any of the two operands is true, then condition becomes true. | (A || B) is true. |

! | Called Logical NOT Operator. Use to reverse the logical state of its operand. If a condition is true, then Logical NOT operator will make false. | !(A && B) is true. |

**Bitwise operator**

p | q | p & q | p | q | p ^ q |
---|---|---|---|---|

0 | 0 | 0 | 0 | 0 |

0 | 1 | 0 | 1 | 1 |

1 | 1 | 1 | 1 | 0 |

1 | 0 | 0 | 1 | 1 |

Basically in bitwise operator the operation is performed bit by bit . Assume A=5 B=6

Operator | Description | Example |
---|---|---|

& | binary AND Operator copies a bit to the result if it exists in both operands. | Write A as 0101B as 0110A&B = 0100 i.e 4 |

| | Binary OR Operator copies a bit if it exists in either operand. | (A | B) will give 7 which is 0111 |

^ | Binary XOR Operator copies the bit if it is set in one operand but not both. | (A ^ B) will give 3 which is 0011 |

~ | Binary Ones Complement Operator is unary and has the effect of ‘flipping’ bits. | (~A ) will give 1010 |

<< | Binary Left Shift Operator. The left operands value is moved left by the number of bits specified by the right operand. | A << 2 will give 0101 which is 5 , B<<1 will give 1100 |

>> | Binary Right Shift Operator. The left operands value is moved right by the number of bits specified by the right operand. | A >> 2 will give 5 which is 0101 ,B>>1 will give 0011 |

**Relational operators**

Consider A=0, and B=1

Operator | Description | Example |
---|---|---|

== | Checks if the values of two operands are equal or not, if yes then condition becomes true. | (A == B) is not true. |

!= | Checks if the values of two operands are equal or not, if values are not equal then condition becomes true. | (A != B) is true. |

> | Checks if the value of left operand is greaterthan the value of right operand, if yes then condition becomes true. | (A > B) is not true. |

< | Checks if the value of left operand is less than the value of right operand, if yes then condition becomes true. | (A < B) is true. |

>= | Checks if the value of left operand is greater than or equal to the value of right operand, if yes then condition becomes true. | (A >= B) is not true. |

<= | Checks if the value of left operand is less than or equal to the value of right operand, if yes then condition becomes true. | (A <= B) is true. |

**Assignment operators**

Operator | Description | Example |
---|---|---|

= | Simple assignment operator, Assigns values from right side operands to left side operand | C = A + B will assign value of A + B into C |

+= | Add AND assignment operator, It adds right operand to the left operand and assign the result to left operand | C += A is equivalent to C = C + A |

-= | Subtract AND assignment operator, It subtracts right operand from the left operand and assign the result to left operand | C -= A is equivalent to C = C – A |

*= | Multiply AND assignment operator, It multiplies right operand with the left operand and assign the result to left operand | C *= A is equivalent to C = C * A |

/= | Divide AND assignment operator, It divides left operand with the right operand and assign the result to left operand | C /= A is equivalent to C = C / A |

%= | Modulus AND assignment operator, It takes modulus using two operands and assign the result to left operand | C %= A is equivalent to C = C % A |

<<= | Left shift AND assignment operator | C <<= 2 is same as C = C << 2 |

>>= | Right shift AND assignment operator | C >>= 2 is same as C = C >> 2 |

&= | Bitwise AND assignment operator | C &= 2 is same as C = C & 2 |

^= | bitwise exclusive OR and assignment operator | C ^= 2 is same as C = C ^ 2 |

|= | bitwise inclusive OR and assignment operator | C |= 2 is same as C = C | 2 |

**Miscellaneous operators **

Operator | Description |
---|---|

sizeof | sizeof operator returns the size of a variable. For example, sizeof(a), where a is integer, will return 4. |

Condition ? X : Y | Conditional operator. If Condition is true ? then it returns value X : otherwise value Y |

, | Comma operator causes a sequence of operations to be performed |

. (dot) and -> (arrow) | Member operators are used to reference individual members of classes, structures |

Cast | Casting operators convert one data type to another. For example, int(2.2000) would return 2. |

& | Pointer operator & returns the address of an variable. For example &a; will give actual address of the variable. |

* | Pointer operator * is pointer to a variable. For example *var; will pointer to a variable var. |

**Precedence order**

Category | Operator | Associativity |
---|---|---|

Postfix | () [] -> . ++ – – | Left to right |

Unary | + – ! ~ ++ – – (type)* & sizeof | Right to left |

Multiplicative | * / % | Left to right |

Additive | + – | Left to right |

Shift | << >> | Left to right |

Relational | < <= > >= | Left to right |

Equality | == != | Left to right |

Bitwise AND | & | Left to right |

Bitwise XOR | ^ | Left to right |

Bitwise OR | | | Left to right |

Logical AND | && | Left to right |

Logical OR | || | Left to right |

Conditional | ?: | Right to left |

Assignment | = += -= *= /= %=>>= <<= &= ^= |= | Right to left |

Comma | , | Left to right |

**NOTE:**

In binary , ‘0’ means false and ‘1’ means true . Keep learning !!

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